The work of Stanislav Kolíbal

1. Introduction

In the following work I will sketch the work of an important contemporary artist Stanislav Kolíbal. Despite Kolíbal's importance for modern art, there is still no monograph that would contain a comprehensive view of his extensive work and at the same time include the most important observations of critics on his work. In my work, therefore, I would like to give a summary of the artist's work and his scientific reflections; but in a modest concept determined by my options. I am based primarily on the catalog of the artist's extensive retrospective, held in 1997 at the National Gallery in Prague, which contains the most important pictorial material and quality critical texts (for example, by Jindřich Chalupecký, Jaromír Zemina, Thomas Messer and others). I drew the author's thoughts mainly from a memorial text from the catalog of the exhibition in Český Krumlov from 2003. However, a personal meeting with the artist on January 25, 2006 in the Trade Fair Palace in Prague was also stimulating.

2. About the artist
Stanislav Kolíbal was born on December 11, 1925 in Orlová. He is one of the most prominent figures in Czech fine art of the 20th century. He devoted himself to many areas of artistic creation. He is known as a sculptor, draftsman, graphic artist, illustrator, typographer, set designer, author of installations and curator of exhibitions.
3. Historical context
At a young age, the artist experienced World War II, during which Cieszyn is occupied first by Poland and then by Germany. At the beginning of 1944, he was sent with all his high school classmates to forced labor in the mine shafts. However, Kolíbal's work was created mainly under the enormous pressure of communist power. Although he never got into a serious conflict with her, she undoubtedly influenced him personally, especially by creating an atmosphere of fear in which freedom of speech disappears. "If an artist is prevented from speaking in his time, it is a fundamental violation of the meaning of his existence and it cannot be comforted that the opportunity will come one day. Or by the fact that certain ideas or their expressions may be constantly valid. The art is intrinsically linked to the time of its creation. "The author writes in one of his texts. [1] For example, the market system was completely different from the previous one, and the rules of the free market offered a sad but tempting way to get lost for the weaker characters.

4. Connections with other artistic directions

The period of Kolíbal's work corresponds in time to the arte povera movement in the world. In their works, these artists focus on the thought process and reject the image and its form as a central aesthetic goal. He tries to find a direct relationship between thinking and its material expression in time and space. They use cement and metal, for example, as materials for their works. Although Kolíbal kept pace with the development of art in the world (and sometimes preceded it), his work is in a way distinctive and unmistakable. In this context, Jiří Šetlík emphasizes the specific environment of the Czech lands: "The area of Central Europe, with the heart of the Czech lands and the magic of Prague, marked the course of the ages with some peculiarities of thinking, feeling and ideas of those who inhabit it. The artistic statement points to the place as an attractive point, the spiritual intersection of the environment that shapes the artist. "[2]

5. Personal and general principles of creation

The beginnings of Kolíbal's work are connected with his studies at a real grammar school in Ostrava. Kolíbal's first school drawings have been preserved from this period. The artist also refers to his drawing teacher in the text of the captions of his current exhibition at the Trade Fair Palace, where he writes in his latest watercolors: [3] Although Payn's gray is now used by the artist differently than at the beginning of his work, contemporary work once again looks back to its starting point, creating a complex whole of the distinctive work of the deserving artist Stanislav Kolíbal. If Kolíbal's Prague peer Vladimír Boudník reacted to the gloomy atmosphere of the Libeň factory periphery, Kolíbal chose the path. objectification and the search for a higher transcendental order the experience of childhood will later be reflected in the artist's work, namely admiration for the beauty of pure white. At the beginning of his exhibition in the New Hall (1967), the artist confesses his fascination with the purity of the white ceiling: "Open your eyes and look into such a purity, which was broken only by the lamp cord." [4] Enchanted by the beauty of the boulders in the river, he builds statues from them, as if the ancient, prehistoric moment has reappeared in the artist when a man, abandoned in the mysterious and unknown world that surrounds him, tries to establish a relationship with the transcendent by erecting a stone. however, the first sculptures also contain a state of lability, which will become one of the important elements of the artist's future work. with a shaky hand with a trembling hand, a monograph by the famous American artist Alexander Calder appears before his eyes. The era occurred in Kolíbal's work already during the construction of the Stone Heads in the Bečva riverbed. A few years later, while visiting Calder's exhibition, the artist writes in his diary: "Only a leaf of a tree swings so easily. Or a moored boat. The paths of celestial bodies change so quietly and unnoticed. "[5] However, he was not only captivated by the motility of Calder's work. While the first of the influences manifested itself more in sculptural work, the second more in drawing. A few years later, in 1964, the plaster statue "Labil" was created, named as the middle term between Calder's terms "mobile" and "stabil". During one of his visits to Prague, the German sculptor of Czech origin Otto Herbert Hajek [7] The movement in it is not captured in its realization as in the Caldera, but in possibility.Another important moment will take place in the Athens Archaeological Museum, where the artist recognizes ancient Cycladic idols. that it is possible to develop the same gesture over and over without making the statue less interesting, creating a series of women's "Torsos with Hands on Hips". This part of Kolíbal's work seems to prove the opinion that the incredible richness and interest of the surrounding world is not only in itself, but especially in the person who constantly creates new insights into it.

6. Statues

Sculpture is the very core of Kolíbal's work. However, the path to it was not easy, as the artist started with drawing and some important critics discouraged him from experimenting in sculpture. For example, Jindřich Chalupecký wrote to the artist in 1957: "Your sculptures are a rescue act, not a solution. (...) "[8] Despite this, the artist continued his efforts. The first significant venture was experiments with female torsos, based on ancient Cycladic idols. They originated in the 50s and are very diverse. material, plaster, which was quite unconventional at a time when every artist wanted to create bronze sculptures.Torgas are interesting to me especially because of their varied diversity within one theme.Kolibalov's sculptural work also contains works that reacted very sensitively to social and political Jiří Švestka writes that "... Kolíbal's dematerializing statues can be interpreted, among other things, completely existentially and politically." They are interesting in the peace that radiates from them, given the critical time in which they arose, but this peace in them is not a resignation, but a sincere message, a true statement about a person. and the world as such in terms of eternity. In the 1970s, the problem of space and its imitation by drawing appeared in sculptural work. It uses drawn lines and its appearance into real space using threads. Another area of ​​sculptural creation are sculptures expressing a certain thought process. The most thoughtful work in this area of ​​his work is the statue The Double Possibility (1974). The artist himself wrote about this statue: "From the starting point anywhere in the space / string towards the wall. At some point, our paths / our decisions / are divided into situation A, / circular, solid, closed, metallic / or situation B / square, fragile, open - "Kolíbal's conceptual sculptures fascinate with the precision they imitate Quote from the artist's favorite book, The Horsehair Glove and My Logbook by Pierre Reverdy: "To create means to think very deeply. There is a kind of higher thinking, but if it leaves no trace, it does not satisfy us. Thinking can recognize and judge its limits. only on something specific. "[9] I myself was very interested in the sculpture Abyss (1987), which I had the opportunity to see in the exhibition of the Moravian Gallery in Brno. The theme of this sculpture, unlike the sculpture of the Double Possibility, is no longer subjective human thinking, but rather the capture of objective being. However, the two worlds, subjective and objective, are wonderfully intertwined in Kolíbal's work, and it was not to the benefit of laying down solid boundaries between them. The inclination to be objective in this work is related to a series of relief Geometric Exercises, which also arose at that time. The statue Silence after the Fall (1975) consists of geometrically placed threads on the wall, on which a longer wooden stick probably hung. However, it tore at one end and now lies on the ground with its end. The other end of the rod still holds one of the threads. Although the work captures the plot that surrounds us every day - the fall of things caused by gravitational force, awareness of this process can be interesting. In his work, Kolíbal repeatedly brings to the surface the phenomena that we overlook in the daily rhythm of our lives as a matter of course, gives them a higher meaning and transforms them into a work that immediately defines us. With his astonishment at the unnaturalness of everyday life, he is a true philosopher. In his prose The Second City, Michal Ajvaz beautifully describes how a contemplative man mobilizes to enter another world during a seemingly idle window outside the cafes: and the fascinating writing of the folds of the dress, the meaning of which we are beginning to sense, the scorching glow of colors glowing from within. We can only meet what we have really seen. He who sits behind cold glasses to watch does not seek shelter, but proves the courage to meet. Only behind the glass, which is stripped by being from untrue and boring roles, does a monstrous, radiant cosmos appear to us: a difficult dream and our own home. "[10]

An interesting project could be an exhibition of selected Kolíbal's works for the blind. The idea of ​​exclusively tactile perception of some of his works, such as the sculpture Double Option and others, seems interesting. An even more unusual experience could be the tactile perception of small cardboard reliefs, which will be discussed at the end.

7. White drawings

The white drawings, created in the 70's, will captivate the viewer with their spontaneity. The gesture is very economical and at the same time expressively full. Only excellent artists can afford a similar straightforwardness. In them, the author wanted to express the variability of nature over time, the constant cycle of origin and extinction, the unpredictability of natural phenomena. One can feel the constant effort of the artist to find an objective order behind nature, and at the same time from the human point of view an unpleasant, yet bravely acknowledged and tirelessly expressed awareness that that effort will never be fully fulfilled. However, Kolíbal is an optimist at the beginning of his character and therefore expresses his organic inorganism positively: "I have never been so abstract as to give up all context. I was reluctant to enter that silent, aseptic world of "shape for shape." [11] This attitude sets him apart from other geometrizing artists. The 1975 drawing, entitled Across the Obstacle, can be cited as a representative of this part of the work.

It consists of an elongated standing rectangle, the higher side of which is passed diagonally by pairs of closely parallel lines. Their interval is filled to a certain point with a black color, which seems to "pour" out about halfway along the length of the lines. disappearing into the lost.

The standing rectangle, which this story literally does not touch, does not take part in the dramatic storyline. It represents a parallel story, which is about itself. Running the lines and spilling their fill, that is, splitting the new path, adds dynamism to the drawing's content. The two parallel lines, gripping the black magma, are torn by it. Far from me, this story evokes the idea of ​​the French philosopher Henri Bergson, who writes how the first form of life, a mechanically responsive changeling, faced evolutionary two paths: an uncertain, demanding, risky path - the development of free choice, and stagnation, dullness and automatic responses. [12] Human thinking evolved from the first journey. It set out over an obstacle, a less comfortable path, in the germ of which is the decision to take risks. "In short, matter is inertia, geometry, necessity. However, unpredictable and free movement emerges with life. The living entity chooses or tends to choose. Its role is to create. "The French philosopher continues in his lecture. [13] Here it would be worth mentioning Kolíbal's relationship to philosophy as a scientific discipline. his works are in line with the conclusions of philosophers, and his work is intellectual, as he says, "it could be read," [14] but it is not based on pure philosophy. Jindřich Chalupecký, who accused Kolíbal of an overly philosophical approach and the spontaneity of his work, was probably wrong in this respect.

8. Berlin drawings

The Berlin drawings form geometric shapes that were arranged in different ways. The author likened their origin to a game of chess. [15] He started drawing, for example, by halving a piece of paper in two equal halves. Then he joined the lower corner of the quarter with its half, thus gaining the possibility of a new radius of the circle, etc. With each new move, as in chess, there were several different ways to move on. Of these, the artist had to choose the one that is, or will be, the most beneficial to the whole. One of the distinctive features of Kolíbal's work appears here, namely the emphasis on the process of creation of the work. Another important element that could be demonstrated in these drawings is Kolíbal's content, which differs from Western artists such as Frank Stella. The drawings were created in the turbulent year of the fall of communism, and the artist wrote in a diary at the time: "My goal was a certain private statement about the order. Because in the midst of unexpected freedom, I was surprised by the increase in destruction and violence. "[16] So Kolibal's geometry is not an end in itself. time before television, in which the images ran very sad: about Nazism, war, communism, about the third world ...

9. Buildings

Berlin's drawings later became the basis for the floor plans of the three-dimensional wooden buildings. Their theme can also be expressed as the "formation and construction of space." This statement suggests that the main element of these works of art is not the material, but rather the void between it. [17] The artist goes on to say that his goal was to create a kind of architecture with human scales that could be viewed and examined. If some concepts of contemporary architecture are based on sculptural concepts, such as Milunič's Dancing House, Kolíbal has set the opposite goal: to transform architecture into sculpture. Thus, one main problem is observed in three-dimensional Buildings, and that is the problem of finding harmony between individual geometric shapes, such as a circle and its parts, squares, rectangles and their sections. However, this is not the only meaning of these works. For Kolíbal at the time, these geometric forms were literally "the best way to express being." A similar idea was expressed by Thomas M. Messer: "The artist wants to speak especially to those who understand art, far from the appearance of being, who understand art as an expression of being parallel and analogous." [18] Therefore, too specific interpretation should be avoided. that the Buildings represent a kind of maze. This interpretation is defended by the author himself: "I have to protest if anyone seems to see a picture of the labyrinth in these constructions."

10. Architecture

Thus, if the Buildings located inside the building are considered a kind of "kind of architecture in architecture", [19] let us now turn to Kolíbal's purely architectural designs and realizations. In architecture, Kolíbal sought to combine sculpture and architecture into such a unity that they form He did not want the sculpture to become only a decoration of the building, but also to be a part of it. the plan succeeded, we can only draw from the photograph of the embassy model with a sculpture in the foreground, because the project was not implemented, but it is also true that if we stand in front of the sculpture itself in a closed gallery space, it seems to us This is also proof of the author's success.Another architectural realization is the retaining wall of the Nuselský Bridge in Prague from 196 4 and the wall of Czechoslovakia. embassy in London. Among the unrealized designs is the Monument to the Victims of Fascism in the shape of a huge hollow cube, sunk one corner into the ground, which would be entered through a long underground tunnel. It is also worth mentioning the memorial of the first broadcast of Czechoslovak Radio in Prague-Kbely, which took place in 1923. The co-author of the memorial is the architect Zdeněk Rothbauer

11. Scenography

Art historian Jaromír Zemina divides Kolíbal's work into the field of sculpture, which is close to architecture, and into the field of drawing, which is related to the illustration of literature. The link between these two groups is the scenography, which includes both architectural and narrative elements. "It thus closed the basic schedule of Kolíbal's activities into an admirably logical harmony, which other increasing art forms (...) are only nuancing." [20] So let's move from the above-discussed architectural to scenography. The final work of the studio was the production of Chekhov's Uncle Váňa, who loved Chekhov at a young age because he admired his ability to express the ordinary, such as Shakespeare's plays Romeo and Juliet. Although Kolíbal became more famous as a sculptor, in scenography we find his solid approach to work, which could also be defined as "total work commitment" and so on.

12. Curation

In the scenography, Kolíbal developed, among other things, an extraordinary feeling for working in space, which he later applied during exhibition installations. "The author's opinion is based on a well-thought-out concept of the task, in which the means of the simplest and unadorned possible turn anonymous space into a concrete work, memorable, emotionally impressive." [21] He has a rich knowledge of the history of modern art (he has been systematically studying and following the development of modern art since his studies). at the Museum of Modern Art in Paris and co-authored the concept of the National Gallery's permanent exhibition of modern art at the Trade Fair Palace.

13. Illustration

Kolíbal created illustrations for books at the grammar school. He later liked Chekhov's short stories and plays. His early illustrations are existentially tuned, with white dominance, which he considers to be the color of melancholy in this period. Probably the most fundamental achievement in the field of illustration was the illustration of the book The Tree of Fairy Tales, in which the artist sought not only a visual depiction of a scene from the book, but a kind of parallel pictorial accompaniment to a text that would create a whole and stimulate the viewer's imagination. Kolíbal's conceptual tendencies can probably be fully realized in illustration. He once wrote: "It often seems to me that what I do could also be read. Because I'm interested in an idea. "[22] After all, writing, symbol and image are not that far apart." Images and letters are blood relatives. "[23] Ernst Hans Gombrich writes in his masterpiece The Art Story. Nevertheless, today we feel the difference between the two media. Maybe they really are two different evolutionary paths of some first, archetypal symbol from the mysterious beginnings of humanity. The narrative of the artist's work was also noted by Thomas M. Messer, who writes that "Kolíbal's ability to transform thought processes into graphic and plastic equivalents in a non-verbal way is at the heart of his art." [24] The famous idea of ​​the architect Louise Kahn was aptly chosen: "To speak is the meaning of life for man. Art is his means." In my text, I often replace Kolíbal's name with the word "artist." This label is well-suited to Kolibal's work, and it works very well, it emphasizes the idea we find in Kolibal's work. about the 20th century, also slightly suspicious.) Jiří Šetlík emphasizes that "Kolíbal's illustrative style is very personal". From the current book work, I would like to mention the edition of artistic theoretical texts published by Arbor vitae, which Kolíbal directs. He is also the author of the graphic design of book covers.

14. Cages and traps

When we went from the cycle of Berlin drawings to their spatial realization, we followed one of the creative lines, which were the starting point. However, there is another path that begins in Berlin's drawings. The light spatial clues that were developed in the Cages and Traps cycle can already be traced in them. These were created by extending a simple line in hatching and, for example, a square in a three-dimensional shape. "Whenever I used Berlin drawings as floor plans for spatial buildings, I looked for matches between one wall and another, even though it was in a quite different plan. Kolíbal writes in a commentary on the Cage and the Trap cycle. [25] The drawings evoke three-dimensionality, but it is also questioned. The dimensions of this sculpture were the cycle of Cages and Traps, following the drawings from Berlin, used as floor plans of three-dimensional buildings. The cages, currently erected in front of the magnificent building of the functionalist Trade Fair Palace, eventually overturned the two-dimensional nature of the drawings. playfully, it would almost be possible to install it as a children's climbing frame, but it has an extremely serious content, namely, how from the imprisonment of our existence we look at being. On the upper side, which is viewed from a depth of about 2 meters, a triangle is cut into the grid at the corner, which is empty. He also probably adds airiness and spirituality to the statue. In the Cages and Traps cycle, the line was transformed into a grid. However, this did not remain the final solution, as it was transformed into an area expressed by watercolors.

15. Watercolors

"I've never been interested in color. That's why I chose non-color for my watercolors. "[26] A cycle of watercolors in which only" non-color "is used to use the artist's own expression, or - if you like, Payne's Gray, a dictionary of common technical terminology, intertwines one of the central problems of Kolíbal's work, the problem of two-dimensionality and three-dimensionality. Some walls suggest three-dimensionality, others deny it. On one of the contemporary watercolors, I was fascinated by the use of an inverted block perspective in confrontation with a linear perspective. Kolíbal follows Paul Cézanne's questioning of the classic vanishing point of Bruneleschi's perspective. It literally creates different worlds. It is superficial to reduce the theme of watercolors in the expression "optical illusion", because Kolibal shows a new reality, not an illusion. this mundaneness conceals the possibilities of other, new views of the world. We can get lost in the watercolors as in the maze of other dimensions of thought and forget our experienced views of the world. This will only be fully made possible for us if we give up our belief that only the fact that results from a certain measurement is objectively true. After all, nowadays this theme could also be interpreted as a desperate attempt (wasps trying to fly through the window pane) to get rid of the limiting three-dimensionality and enter the fourth space. It is still impossible today, but in science it is already beginning to find its way ... However, Kolíbal himself says: "I do not see the possibility in the external use of what civilization creates without art. [27] The above interpretation of the work would therefore be more suited to the work of Hugo Demartini. art ". [28]

In the exhibition at the Trade Fair Palace, Hugo Demartini exhibited photographic documentation of his event, during which he threw white skewers and pieces of paper into the sky, thus creating geometric shapes in the air. In the photo, the discarded papers appear in a relatively clean dark color, without shading, and thus confuse the viewer. The objects magically fly through the landscape and move from the photo to the gallery space and back again. When Demartini questions gravity, Kolibal questions the established spatial perception of the world based on two-dimensional imitation. This was strengthened over several centuries, when artists used technical equipment - the black chamber - as their aid. Jiří Valoch wrote about watercolors: "The result is extremely subtle, with an accentuated" handwriting "including irregular margins, the themes are the organization of elements and their interrelationships, sometimes the work approaches the illusion of space, but dominates a specific space of layered color." [29] still a beautiful poem by the artist himself: ,, Shadow / cornices fall on the wall / opposite house / How it resembles a small area / drying / and blue wet / on my desk / Shadow / is seldom like what casts it / And it wants to go now to say / ALSO / Also so intangible / intangible / connected with reality / but indistinctly / Immediately existing / Immediately nonexistent ". [30] The poem gives us a new opportunity to penetrate the immense sensitivity of Kolíbal's thinking. Compared to the watercolors from 1994-1999, published in the book Six Cycles, the watercolors from recent years are richer in composition and more complicated. The idea in them has already been developed to its fullness. It is also possible to observe a change in the manuscript, which shook and thus replaced the purely surface painting.

16. Diagonals

Let us now turn to the area of ​​Kolíbal's work, which seems superficial to be overlooked, although it could be understood as a logical culmination of an ascetic approach to creation, but also as finding the artist's own relationship to art as a whole. I mean the Diagonals cycle. The author himself writes in the commentary on "Buildings" that material does not matter. Nevertheless, material in a materially expressed work of art will always affect us, whether we like it or not. The artist is also fully aware of this fact. Proof of this can be small cardboard reliefs, called the "Diagonals" cycle. Commenting on the current exhibition, Kolíbal writes: "The cardboard used for the production of packaging is most often found in waste as waste. At the same time he is so beautiful. With its color, its lightness and ease of processing. I used to use it for small models. First sculptures, later reliefs. In the end, I decided that it may be suitable for the final result. Despite its commonness and transience. After all, ordinaryness has always been the subject of my admiration. "[31] Personally, I like the chosen material very much. It seems to me to be extremely humble, even ascetic. a work of art that persists for centuries. Coping with the phenomenon of time permeates the whole of Kolíbal's work, isn't the choice of a passing cardboard one of its unconscious manifestations? Although the material has been chosen appropriately, it is not the main purpose of the creation. Even in reliefs, one can trace the emphasis on the mutual relationship of elements rather than material expression. Thus, when perceiving them, we can focus on the shapes emerging from only the indicated points of the composition, rather than on the spatially expressed shapes themselves. These reliefs raise the question in me: If matter is not important, nor its durability, then what is the very core of such creation ... Reliefs oscillate on the edge of art in our minds. Kolíbal's materially expressed work thus comes close to a purely mental act with a huge spiritual charge. That's also why it looks so inspiring.

17. Conclusion

Hana Rousová writes in the preface of Kolíbal's retrospective that the whole exhibition is also: "about our recent and present history and Kolíbal's position in them - about the active desire for continuity in a situation of violent discontinuity, about personal freedom in times of freedom, but also democracy, especially but a risky search for one's own identity. "[32] One art historian wrote about Kolibal that he was a" pure spirit. " From his work, it is possible to sense the radiance of a sincere effort for the authenticity of life. What's more, his art has nothing to do with life in terms of today and tomorrow, but in terms of eternity, after all, like any real work of art. At the exhibition of paintings by the young painter Jakub Špaňhel in 2003, a painting was also exhibited, which was probably created by crossing a template in the shape of several crosses side by side with a roller with white paint. The result was a white canvas with a rhythmically equally repeating motif of small black cemetery crosses. With its atmosphere, the work generally fit into the atmosphere of the exhibition. However, for the first time in my life, as a work of art, I asked myself whether I could trust him as an artistic expression. It is interesting that in Kolíbal's work the theme of death appears exceptionally. However, when he appears, such as in the title of the 1980 statue (Near Death), I give him my trust. I don't know if it's the charm that the work is done or the kind of truth that radiates from it. However, doubts about his credibility will not arise before him. Any abuse of large symbols is alien to Kolibal. Already during his stay in West Germany, at the time of the fall of communist power, the artist decided to persevere in his creative journey despite other fashion influences. He found that the society of the time needed peace rather than bursting. This belief is expressed in the poem the artist created at the time: No more cruelty in art / It is full everywhere / No rituals / No wildness Cynicism Shock / Why one would not be pleased / just by the proportionality of relationships [33] The responsibility with which Stanislav Kolíbal he approaches art, and in the broader sense of the word, including society as a whole, it would be impossible without high moral qualities. Jiří Šetlík thus correctly states that ,, Kolíbal's spirituality has a solid background in faith in God; it is - without ostentatious religiosity - the backbone of the artist's thinking and actions. "[34] I believe that thanks to the gift of this firm and enduring faith, the personality of the deserving artist Stanislav Kolíbal confidently turn and seek solace in her creation.

18. Sources

(1) Ajvaz, Michal, Druhé město, Mladá fronta, Praha, 1993

(2) Bergson, Henri, Vědomí a život, in: Duchovní energie, Vyšehrad, Praha, 2002

(3) Gombrich, E. H., The Story of Art, Phaidon, London, 2004

(4) Knížák, Milan, Vedle umění, H&H Vyšehradská, Praha, 2002

(5) Kolíbal, Stanislav, Česká kresba 3), Galerie umění Karlovy Vary, 1995

(6) Kolíbal, Stanislav, Kresby, sochy, komentáře, Arbor vitae, Praha, 2003

(7) Kolíbal, Stanislav, Retrospektiva Národní galerie v Praze, NG, Praha, 1997

(8) Kolíbal, Stanislav, Šest cyklů, Arbor vitae, Praha, 2004

(9) Kolíbal, Stanislav, 1988 - 1995, Dům umění města Brna, Brno, 1995

(10) Šetlík, Jiří, Cesty po ateliérech, Torst, Praha, 1996

(11) Trávníček, František, Slovník jazyka českého, Slovanské nakladatelství, Praha, 1952

(12) Kolíbal, Stanislav, Dostál, Marin, rozhovor o výstavě Stanislav Kolíbal - Nové akvarely a objekty, 11.11.2005-12.2.2006, Veletržní palác, Národní galerie dne 25.1.2006


[1] Kolíbal, Stanislav, Retrospektiva Národní galerie v Praze, NG, Praha, 1997, str. 10

[2] Šetlík, Jiří, Cesty po ateliérech, Torst, Praha, 1996, str. 101

[3] Kolíbal, Stanislav, Šest cyklů, Arbor vitae, Praha, 2004, str. 123

[4] Kolíbal, Stanislav, Retrospektiva Národní galerie v Praze, NG, Praha, 1997, str. 174

[5] Kolíbal, Stanislav, Kresby, sochy, komentáře, Arbor vitae, Praha, 2003, str. 65

[6] Ibid, str. 66

[7] Kolíbal, Stanislav, Kresby, sochy, komentáře, Arbor vitae, Praha, 2003, str. 103

[8] Kolíbal, Stanislav, Retrospektiva Národní galerie v Praze, NG, Praha, 1997, str. 172

[9] Kolíbal, Stanislav, 1988 - 1995, Dům umění města Brna, Brno, 1995, str. 33

[10] Ajvaz, Michal, Druhé město, Mladá fronta, Praha, 1993, str. 43

[11] Kolíbal, Stanislav, Kresby, sochy, komentáře, Arbor vitae, Praha, 2003, str. 22

[12] Bergson, Henri, Vědomí a život, in: Duchovní energie, Vyšehrad, Praha, 2002, str. 13

[13] Ibid, str. 13

[14] Kolíbal, Stanislav, Dostál, Marin, rozhovor o výstavě Stanislav Kolíbal - Nové akvarely a objekty, 11.11.2005 -12.2.2006, Veletržní palác, Národní galerie dne 25.1.2005

[15] Ibid

[16] Kolíbal, Stanislav, Šest cyklů, Arbor vitae, Praha, 2004, str. 123

[17] Kolíbal, Stanislav, Kresby, sochy, komentáře, Arbor vitae, Praha, 2003, str. 34

[18] Kolíbal, Stanislav, Retrospektiva Národní galerie v Praze, NG, Praha, 1997, str. 178

[19] Knížák, Milan, Vedle umění, H&H Vyšehradská, Praha, 2002, str. 106

20 Kolíbal, Stanislav, Retrospektiva Národní galerie v Praze, NG, Praha, 1997, str. 176

[21] Šetlík, Jiří, Cesty po ateliérech, Torst, Praha, 1996, str. 108

[22] Kolíbal, Stanislav, Retrospektiva Národní galerie v Praze, NG, Praha, 1997, str. 176

[23] Gombrich, E. H., The Story of Art, Phaidon, London, 2004, str. 53

[24] Kolíbal, Stanislav, Retrospektiva Národní galerie v Praze, NG, Praha, 1997, str. 179

[25] Kolíbal, Stanislav, Šest cyklů, Arbor vitae, Praha, 2004, str. 123

[26] Ibid, str. 123

[26] Šetlík, Jiří, Cesty po ateliérech, Torst, Praha, 1996, str. 102

[26] Ibid, str.102

[26] Kolíbal, Stanislav, Česká kresba 3), Galerie umění Karlovy Vary, 1995

[27] Šetlík, Jiří, Cesty po ateliérech, Torst, Praha, 1996, str. 102

[28] Ibid, str.102

[29] Kolíbal, Stanislav, Česká kresba 3), Galerie umění Karlovy Vary, 1995

[30] Ibid

[31] Kolíbal, Stanislav, Šest cyklů, Arbor vitae, Praha, 2004, str. 123

[32] Kolíbal, Stanislav, Retrospektiva Národní galerie v Praze, NG, Praha, 1997, str. 8

[33] Kolíbal, Stanislav, 1988 - 1995, Dům umění města Brna, Brno, 1995, str. 9

[34] Šetlík, Jiří, Cesty po ateliérech, Torst, Praha, 1996, str. 106.